Assess the past and present impact nurses, including advanced professional/advanced practice nurses, have made in addressing this health issue.
Describe how nurses can become more broadly involved with influencing health policy related to this issue. Include resources available.
Hypothesize how nurses can positively impact future outcomes related to the provision of care for persons affected by the health issue.
Synthesize all aspects of the health care issue through a summary conclusion, concisely tying up Parts 1-6 of the CLC – Health Issue Analysis.
This is APA format, 3 references, I have attached topics 1-5 that is needed for this CLC project
Influenza CLC group essay 11-28-2017
Influenza commonly known as flu is a contagious respiratory infection that attacks the general respiratory system that is, the nose, throat, and even the lungs. It is caused by the two types of influenza viruses which are influenza A, influenza B and influenza C (Wang & Tao, 2010). Attacks from both viruses are epidemic and seasonal as they are common within specific periods within a year. Attack mechanisms for influenza A viruses depends on the genes on the surface protein of a patient. They are normally spread through sneezing and coughing from an infected individual to the surrounding air (Wang & Tao, 2010).
The flu can also attack an individual in case they get into direct body tissue contact with an infected individual for example handshaking. Health professionals argue that the flu virus is stubborn and spreads mainly over tiny droplets which are produced when the infected individuals’ cough, talk, and sneeze (Wang & Tao, 2010). Such droplets are easily carried by the surrounding air and can be landed in the nose and mouths of the immediate persons. Additionally, it can enter into one’s system if he or she gets into direct contact with a surface or object that has the influenza bacteria and consequently rubs or touches their nose, mouth or even eyes (Wang & Tao, 2010).
Health departments have overtime identified initiative to address the problem of influenza, such initiatives include:
Reducing human exposure to the flu viruses, this initiative works by notifying the public on the safe ways to prevent and control the spread of the virus and it actively works to reduce infection opportunities and curbs the spread of the pandemic virus (Abramson, 2011).
They have built able capacities to cope with the pandemic, measures have been taken and put in place to cope with the virus since helping the society to stay free from the virus (Abramson, 2011).
They have innovated much on early warning and acknowledgments, information about influenza and its impacts to the society are made clear since it is effective for the society to stay free from the influenza virus (Abramson, 2011).
Necessary global scientific researches are being carried out and developments to ensure that vaccines and antiviral drugs are available across the globe mostly during the seasons which the virus is spread. The scientific knowledge enables quick and effective identification of the virus at its initial stages (Abramson, 2011).
Several measures have been put in place to measure the progress of the issue. They include;
The World Health Organization has continuously carried out tests to identify cases of attack by the virus at its early stages that are in one to four days of an individual’s exposure to the influenza virus (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
Materials enlightening the public about the virus and the most convenient ways to stay free from the attack are being developed and provisional with all measures that can help curb and salvage the situation (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
The current status of the issue based on measures outcomes clarifies that the globe is well up and at a good place to overcome the spread of influenza viruses. This has been made possible by the continuous scientific researchers which develop antiviral drugs and vaccines which are work to stop the spread and impacts of the influenza virus upon the general society (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
Abramson, J. (2011). Inside the 2009 Influenza Pandemic
. World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011.
Tam, J., & Sellwood, C. (2013). Pandemic Influenza
. CABI, 2013.
Wang, Q., & Tao, Y. (2010). Molecular Virology
. Horizon Scientific Press.
Diane Boll, Lisa Hart, Risper Ireri
Grand Canyom University:NUR 508
Influenza is a highly infectious respiratory illness that mostly occurs during winter months north of the equator. Influenza, commonly known as the “flu” occurs between October and March and with reported outbreaks between September and May. Signs of influenza include but are not limited to high fever, myalgia, headache, sore throat, chills and persistent malaise (Edelman & Mandle, 2006). Each year in the US alone, influenza and pneumonia result in 114,000 admissions with 36,000 lives lost and costs an estimated $12 billion (Walton, 2016). Edelman and Mandle (2006) discussed the influenza vaccine markedly reduce the incidence of complications, hospitalization, and deaths and the vaccine can be given to anyone above six months unless allergic to it. It’s given with caution to those with allergies to eggs (Edelman & Mandle, 2006). Contrary to misconception, the most common vaccine is not made up of the live influenza virus but composed of the inactivated whole virus or virus subunits grown in chick embryo cells and given annually (Edelman & Mandle, 2006). Influenza is a global issue as many in underprivileged countries without access to adequate health care continue to die from it and there is a need to rapidly identify the virus and provide proper treatment, thereby preventing its spread locally and internationally.
Influence of Health and Socioeconomic Status on Influenza
Though all age groups can contract influenza those with fragile or weakened immune systems are more severely affected and include the pregnant women, elderly adults with comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, malignancy, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. According to Walton (2016), children less than two years have the highest infection rate, but death rates are usually highest among elderly (age 65 and older). Influenza is associated with low social, economic status, lack of preventive treatment and poor housing. Most
of the people affected by influenza lack insurance coverage, have lower levels of education, are unemployed, lack social network and travel long distances to medical facilities (Watson, 2016).
Health departments have overtime identified initiatives to address the problem of influenza, such initiatives include: reducing human exposure to the flu viruses, this initiative works by notifying the public on the safe ways to prevent and control the spread of the virus and it actively works to reduce infection opportunities and curbs the spread of the pandemic virus (Abramson, 2011). They have built able capacities to cope with the pandemic, measures have been taken and put in place to cope with the virus since helping the society to stay free from the virus (Abramson, 2011). They have innovated much on early warning and acknowledgements, information about influenza and its impacts to the society are made clear since it is effective for the society to stay free from influenza virus (Abramson, 2011). Necessary global scientific researches are being carried out and developments to ensure that vaccines and antiviral drugs are available across the globe mostly during the seasons which the virus is spread. The scientific knowledge enables quick and effective identification of the virus at its initial stages (Abramson, 2011). Several measures have been put in place to measure the progress of the issue. They include; The world Health Organization has continuously carried out tests to identify cases of attack by the virus at its early stages that are in one to four days of a n individual’s exposure to the influenza virus (Tam & Sellwood, 2013). Materials enlightening the public about the virus and the most convenient ways to stay free from the attack are being developed and provisional with all measures that can help curb and salvage the situation (Tam & Sellwood, 2013). The status of the issue based on measures outcomes clarifies that the globe is well up and at a good place to overcome the spread of influenza viruses. This has been made possible by continuous scientific researchers which develop antiviral drugs and vaccines which are to stop the spread and impacts of the influenza virus upon the general society (Tam & Sellwood, 2013).
Current Status of Influenza
Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) is “a comprehensive strategy to reduce the
present global shortage of influenza vaccines for seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza in
all countries of the world (GAP, 2017). Initially, GAP was to be accomplished through three
major approaches: The first GAP approach was to encourage countries to increase their use of
seasonal influenza vaccine. This would in turn reduce the disease burden of seasonal influenza
infections, help to contribute towards the preparedness of industrialized countries to respond to
an eventual pandemic and possibly, most importantly, motivate industry to develop greater
capacity for manufacturing vaccines (GAP, 2017). The second GAP approach concentrates on
increasing production capacity for pandemic vaccines. The short-term goal was established, by
2015 enough vaccine would be produced to immunize two billion people. Additionally, a long
term goal established to produce enough vaccine to immunize 70% of the world’s population
with two doses (GAP, 2017). Lastly, the third GAP approach addressed the need for the research
community to design more potent and effective vaccines through use of new technologies.
According to the Global Action Plan, the seasonal influenza vaccine production
capacity had increased globally from “less than 500 million per year to nearly 1
billion doses per year” by the end of 2010, and the numbers have steadily continued
to rise yearly (2017). Additionally, 14 developing countries have been awarded
grants from WHO to establish in-country manufacturing capacity for influenza
vaccines to prevent and treat influenza (GAP, 2017). Moreover, significant progress
has been achieved with new vaccine formulations. Regular consultations have been
conducted to bring together vaccine researchers and public health professionals to
discuss pandemic influenza vaccines and vaccines that can potentially induce broader
spectrum and longer lasting immunity against both seasonal and pandemic influenza
strains (GAP, 2017). Also, according to Global Action Plan (2017) sharing of
research information has been made possible through a non-restricted internet based
database to facilitate data sharing on clinical trials. This is updated and
complemented with data from technical meetings, publications, and direct contacts
From the time of the first documented global pandemic, which contributed to an estimated
300,000 deaths worldwide, science has been researching and monitoring influenza (Influenza,
2017). Through initiatives between joint stakeholders much progress has been made toward
decreasing the number of deaths per year as well as other serious complications related to
influenza (GAP, 2017). The best line of treatment will always be preventing and control through
vaccination, early detection, and meticulous hand hygiene.
Abramson, J. (2011). Inside the 2009 Influenza Pandemic. World Scientific Publishing
Company, 2011. Retrieved from
Edelman, C. L., & Mandle, C. L. (2006). Health promotion throughout the life span
(6th ed.). St.
Louis, MO: Mosby Elsevier.
Global Action Plan. (2017). World Health Organization (WHO). Global action plan for influenza
vaccines (GAP) Retrieved from http://www.who.int/influenza_vaccines_plan/en/
Influenza. (2017). World Health Organization (WHO). Influenza surveillance outputs Retrieved
Tam, J., & Sellwood, C. (2013). Pandemic Influenza. CABI, 2013. Retrieved from
Walton, B. E. (2016). Influenza Pandemic and Other Bugs. Ohio Nurses Review
Wang, Q., & Tao, Y. (2010). Molecular Virology
. Horizon Scientific Press.
Diane Boll, Lisa Hart, Risper Ireri
Grand Canyon University: NUR 508
Influenza is a cross-community pandemic hence requires attention from all sectors involved in maintaining a community’s welfare. Therefore both the public and the private sectors are involved in funding for initiatives to address influenza and such is achieved through:
For the public sector;
State agencies; which are permanent or temporally bodies appointed by the government and assigned to oversee and administer in different areas within the state. State agencies which are designated with the responsibility to monitor the health sector and related programs actively provide public funding in such states (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Federal agencies; are special government organizations set up for the purpose to manage its resources and offering financial oversight to ensure accountability. Such units are sources of public funding to initiatives that address flu in the society (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Private corporations; are small business units held by non-governmental bodies or a small group of shareholders which offer products and services to the public. Such organizations offer funds to initiatives directed towards ending the influenza pandemic as a way of giving back to the society as an ethical practice (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Private foundations; are non-profit companies which are created through an initial donation from an individual or a firm and the donated funds are managed by the foundation’s trustees and directors. Initiatives aimed at the control and prevention of influenza getting funding from all active private organizations to facilitate their running (“Funding Applications.org : Choose Application”, 2017).
Quality initiatives that address influenza pandemic;
Well calculated and predetermined emergency actions; since the pandemic attacks as a surprise emergency programs have been put across as initiatives to stay ready to tackle it anytime, it knocks hence the health sector has reached a milestone in fighting it (Wang & Tao, 2010).
Prevention and preparedness to control the effects of the pandemic; prevention measures against the pandemic include: – reducing human exposure to influenza virus which is attained through enlightening the public on the flu and away to possibly stay free from it. Secondly strengthening early warning systems which make it possible to note any trace of the flu at its initial stages and initiate the efforts required to stop its effects. And thirdly, having adequately developed flu containment operations (Wang & Tao, 2010).
Preparedness is achieved by having a well build up capacity to cope with the pandemic and critically investing in developing new pandemic vaccines and antiviral drugs. Readiness to deal with the situation just in case it attacks is key to addressing the pandemic (Wang & Tao, 2010).
Being insured versus being uninsured impacts health outcomes related to influenza differ. Because insured person is covered against all the dangers that may accrue to him or her as a result of exposure to the flu hence that is an initiative to enable persons to remain focused on their daily tasks (Wang & Tao, 2010).
On the other hand, uninsured individuals do not have any cover or preventative/ control measure that stands between them and the flu. Therefore in case they are exposed to it thus its impact will relatively be all over them hence they are not stable enough while getting through their day to day activities hence the community suffers some loss (Wang & Tao, 2010).
Funding Applications.org : Choose Application
. (2017). Fundingapplications.com
. Retrieved 15 December 2017, from https://www.fundingapplications.com/index.php
Wang, Q., & Tao, Y. (2010). Influenza: Molecuar Virology
. Horizon Scientific, Press, 2010.
Ethical principles in the treatment of Influenza are the guiding statements that the World Health Organization has put across to guide on efforts directed towards treating, prevention and control of the pandemic. The Influenza pandemic has been identified as a health threat for all populations thus calling upon the intervention of global health organizations (Van-Tam, 2012).
Below are some of the leading ethical principles that are applicable in the treatment of influenza;
The principle which addresses global initiatives that are reducing the spread of the pandemic through isolation and putting travel restrictions which subsequently denies them their freedom of movement. The World Health Organization states that all persons are obliged to the freedom of movement hence put such measures which see some populations restricted and denied their freedom of movement is inappropriate. Alternatively all societies despite their health status must be allowed to enjoy their right and privilege of movement with effective control and prevention measures to curb the spread of the pandemic (Van-Tam, 2012).
The protection that health workers addressing the pandemic are obliged to safeguard against the risks which they are exposed to as they execute their duties. Ethical principles of protecting healthcare workers who are actively exposed to the dangers of being infected with the pandemic as they interact with the infected population. Therefore when the risks to which healthcare specialists are exposed to are addressed, then they stand motivated hence maximum delivery while serving the public (Van-Tam, 2012).
It has been provided that there is a prioritized access to healthcare resources facilitated by the increased demand and shortages being experienced from the health provider’s end. The Influenza pandemic commonly identified with the specific populations hence such populations have been given priority to access health services directed towards control, prevention and preparedness to deal with the epidemic and reduce its fierceness on them (Van-Tam, 2012).
Population disparities are the differences which are enjoyed by individuals of different populations in the access and availability of health facilities and services to curb the spread and impacts of the pandemic in society. Ethical principles applicable in the treatment of influenza have brought into being disparities which are influencing the way the community is protected from the epidemic. Such variations can be eliminated by manipulating the set principles and coming up with other ethical principles through a careful consideration of the general population because influenza pandemic is not selective. Such an ethic principle will bring uniformity in the service availability and accessibility (Van-Tam, 2012).
ANA’s code of Ethics for Nurses serves to guide on the execution of nursing responsibilities in a manner that observes the quality and standard services while attending to patients. The ethics ensure that patient’s rights are followed all through the treatment, and a good quality of the service is assured. In the other hand, the rights of the nursing specialist subsequently observed. Therefore the applicable ethical principles consistent with the ANA’s code ethics for nurses which sees them appropriate as they respect both sides involved in the pandemic’s, prevention, control and preparedness (White, 2012)
Van-Tam, J. (2012). Pandemic Influenza
. CABI, 2012.
White, K. (2012). The Essential Guide to Nursing Practice: Applying ANA’s Scope and Standards in Practice and Education
. American Nurses Association.
Cultural believes are the integrated patterns of human behavior that include thoughts and actions. Every cultural practice has beliefs which guide them on health and disease treatment decisions which guide on the necessary steps to be followed in case of an epidemic, in our case “the flu”. In a good number of cultural practices, family members play vital roles in making decisions that contribute to healthcare decision making. Furthermore, a group’s religious faith and spiritual adjustments direct their behavior on seeking healthcare (Timby, 2009).
Collectively a cultural belief is a collective imagination based on an invisible thing which is considered real by a given community and observed as a key role player in the way the community’s affairs are run (Timby, 2009).
Personal experiences, both positive and negative from medical administrators and victims influences their individual beliefs which on the other hand directly influence the nature of decisions made relating to being vaccinated against flu. For example, aging populations’ cultural beliefs influence their likelihood of taking up the influenza vaccine. Therefore such cultural belief divides them into two groups based on flu vaccine uptake. That is, there are those that believe that is likely to catch the flu and are the ones who willingly accept vaccination against the illness. On the other hand are those that believe that they are unlikely to catch the flu and are reluctant to get vaccinated against the epidemic (Timby, 2009).
Beliefs and influence indirectly affect influenza vaccine administration behavior, since despite the fact that Nurse Practitioners are trained to apply evidence-based medical practices while making medical decisions. And contrary to that the decisions they make are largely affected by their individual beliefs hence such influence transfers to their healthcare provision (Timby, 2009).
A belief is an individual’s opinion or conviction which has real prove but is a key player in the way people does things which come in their day to day living. Provisionally a belief defines what is to be done, what is to be avoided and what may accrue to those who do not observe them. Whereas Values relative to influenza are old grown beliefs which have existed over a given period of time considerably a long one. They are, therefore, defined as the standards based on which people plan their lives and make flu vaccination choices (Ford et al., 2018).
Spiritual and religious beliefs and values have influenced the progress in addressing flu and getting rid of it from the community both positively and negatively. From the positive end, they have boosted the progress in addressing the epidemic in that; some sect of the beliefs and values motivates the community to get vaccinated by having medical care specialists outlining all the benefits linked with the vaccine and also the dangers that might accrue to them in case they don’t get vaccinated. Since the flu can only be prevented and not treated as it is for most of the epidemics the most appropriate and effective way to stay free from it is through getting vaccinated (Ford et al., 2018).
On the other hand, spiritual/religious beliefs negatively affect the progress in addressing the epidemic whereby they direct the community not to get vaccinated as they believe that they are least likely to be attacked by the flu hence no need for them to get vaccinated (Ford et al., 2018).
Influenza epidemic occurs all across the world with much of its effects falling to the young population, which is the children who record a seasonal percentage of 20-30% while the adult population records an estimated 5-10% (“WHO | Seasonal influenza”, 2018). The flu is a seasonal disease that typically occurs during winter months affecting the southern hemisphere from April to September and the Northern hemispheres over the months of November to April. And with an unclear seasonal pattern in the tropical regions (“WHO | Seasonal influenza”, 2018). All the governments should carefully consider the data compiled by the World Health Organization in order for it to make sure that their populations are kept free from the flu epidemic.
Ford, S., Ford, S., Ford, S., & Ford, S. (2018). Vaccine uptake affected by culture
. Nursing Times
. Retrieved 12 January 2018, from https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/primary-care/vaccine-uptake-affected-by-culture/5019333.article
Timby, B. (2009). Fundamental Nursing Skills and Concepts
. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.
WHO | Seasonal influenza
. (2018). Who.int
. Retrieved 12 January 2018, from http://www.who.int/ith/diseases/influenza_seasonal/en/]]>