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Forces of Evolution

Biology Lab: Forces of Evolution
Question 1
Report the calculated survival frequencies (these will be in decimal form) of each phenotype of shell bugs at each generation for Exercise 2A and 2B. Two simple tables would be preferred.
Question 2
The procedure asked you to graph the survival frequencies of the two phenotypes of shell bug for the two different sized populations. Look at the two graphs that you plotted for Exercise 2A and 2B. Consider their similarities and differences. Explain how genetic drift effects the phenotype proportions differently in the large (150) population and the small (50) population. Do the different phenotypes trend steadily up or down or do they fluctuate? Do they stay the same over the generations? Consider each of these question for each sized population.
Question 3
Write a Discussion/Conclusion to Exercise 1. An appropriate discussion is a paragraph or two that includes identification and restatement of the hypothesis, a sentence that definitively states whether or not your data supported (NOT PROVED) your hypothesis followed by specific examples from your data that defends that statement of support of lack of support. There should be an explanation of the concept being investigated (how predators can influence a phenotype frequency), and finally describe anything that occurred during the experiment that may have biased your results (i.e. trouble with calculations, dog ate your data sheet, children at your shell bugs, etc.) This question is worth 4 points. You should have at least four sentences.
Question 4
Evolution is defined in your lab procedures a “changes in the frequency of a particular phenotype over several generations”. Look at your data table for Exercise 1. Did your population of shell bugs should undergo evolution. How do you know?
Question 5
What “force” or mechanism for evolution is demonstrated in Exercise 1?
Question 6
Report the calculated survival frequencies (these will be in decimal form) of each phenotype of shell bugs at each generation of Exercise 1. A simple table format would be preferred.
Question 7
From reading your procedures and textbook on the topic, what size population, large (150) or small (50) is more likely to be influenced by genetic drift? Did your results reflect this?
Question 8
Some examples of “artificial” selection might be
a. development of “tea-cup” poodles
b. the creation of dinosaurs that occurred long ago
c. development of drought-resistant corn
d. breeding of race horses
e. breeding of hairless cats
Question 9
Genetic drift is most significant for ____ populations.
a. small
b. all of these are equal
c. medium-sized
d. large
Question 10
How would biologists determine if a population is evolving?
Question 11
Biologists consider evolution to be
a. just a theory
b. some relatively insignificant thinking
c. a fundamental part of the biological sciences
d. a hypothesis
Question 12
Genetic drift is defined as random changes that can occur in a population’s allele frequency. In this case, _______________ would not play a role in the reproductive success of individuals
a. bottleneck affect
b. different phenotypes
c. inbreeding
d. storms and other natural disasters
Question 13
Charls Darwin suggested _______________ as a mechanism that causes evolution.
a. artificial selection
b. natural selection
c. genetic drift
Chapter 16 Ecology(Biology)
Question 1
Describe a mutualistic interaction between two (or more) species.
Question 2
What is an ecological pyramid, and why does it narrow toward the top? Describe the pathway of energy flow through the ecosystem.
Question 3
What is a niche?
A. A mating system in which one male mates with several females
B. An example of population cycling
C. An evolutionary arm race
D. A plant structure containing many flowers
E. The particular set of resources a species uses
Question 4
Describe the pathway and main resevoir of the following: (a) the carbon cycle, (b) the oxygen cycle, and (c) the nitrogen cycle. what are these cycles known as?
Question 5  
What is the competitive exclusion principle?

A conclusion that says one species benefits while the other is harmed
A conclusion that says that if two or more species attempt to utilize the same resource in a habitat, it will have a negative effect on the species that is newer to the habitat.
A conclusion that says two competitors cannot coexist
A conclusion that says two competitors may peacefully coexist.
A conclusion that says both species benefit

Chapter 17 Biodiversity and Human Affairs
Question 1
What is the Blitzkrieg Hypothesis? List one alternative hypothesis that could account for the same phenomenon. Why are we considered to be living in the 6th mass extinction, in other words, what are the two main factors leading to this event?
Question 2  
What is one possible effect of removing a keystone species from an ecosystem?

Decreased biodiversity
Increased species evenness
Increased species richness
Increased species stability
Increased biodiversity

Question 3  
What are the three main components of biodiversity?

Species diversity, species-area relationship, and species evenness
Species richness, species abundance, and species evenness
Genetic diversity, species abundance, and species evenness
Species diversity, species productivity, and species stability
Species diversity, genetic diversity, and habitat diversity

Question 4
Define the following terms: species richness, species abundance, and species evenness. Which of the following hypothesis best supports biodiversity and why?: Climate Hypothesis, Productivity Hypothesis, Stability Hypothesis
Question 5
Describe what have ecologists learned about the relationship between biodiversity and the stability of an ecosystem? How does this relate to the spotted owl controversy?
Chapter 18 Human Population Growth
Question 1
Why does a population size level off as it approaches carrying capacity? What is the difference in carrying capacity between a population experiencing exponential growth to one experiencing logistic growth?
Question 2
What are the four factors that determine a population’s growth rate?

Birth rate, death rate, carrying capacity and emigration rate
Birth rate, death rate, immigration rate, and emigration rate
Birth rate, death rate, doubling time, and carrying capacity
Birth rate, death rate, compounding, and immigration rate
Birth rate, death rate, doubling time, and compounding

Question 3
What information is shown in an age pyramid?

Sex ratio and age structure of a population
Demography and sex ratio of a population
logistic growth and age structure
Carrying capacity and sex ratio
Exponential growth and logistic growth

Question 4  
Briefly explain two reasons why a government would want an accurate census of its population.
Question 5
What are density-dependent factors? Give examples of potential density-dependent factors for a top predator, like a wolf, and a hibernating creature, like a bear. How did Thomas Malthus influence Darwin’s development of the Theory of Evolution?
Lab: Biodiveristy and Evolution

Question 1

1.  Do birds have anything in common with dinosaurs?


Question 2

1.  With which archaic human species did some of the ancestors of modern Europeans interbreed during the past 100,000 years?

Australopithicus afarensis
Homo erectus
Homo habilis

Question 3

1.  What can you infer from the tree you just built with the primate skulls?

A. afarensis is more closely related to living chimpanzees than to living humans.
Larger brains are a trait that separate the genus Homo from their closest relatives.
H. erectus is more closely related to H. neanderthalesis than H. sapiens.
The closest livin relative of H. sapiens is H. erectus

Question 4

1.  What trait to the Stick Insect, Goldfish, Kingsnake, and Dog all have in common?

bilateral symmetry

Question 5

1.  What is the first trait that helped aquatic species evolve into creatures that live on land?

webbed digits
eyes located on top of head
strong arm-like bones

Question 6

1.  Which of the following species does not have tail flukes?

Blue whale
Killer whale

Question 7

1.  Is an animal or a plant more closely related to a fungus?


Question 8

1.  In 2013, scientists found that coelacanths are not the closest relative of four-footed amphibians and other animals. Which species is?

Midas cichlid
Western clawed frog
Great white shark
South American lungfish


Question 9

1.  Based on the tree you have constructed, who is your closest living relative


Question 10

1.  The DNA sequence of the West Indian Ocean coelacanth is closest to which species?

Midas cichlid
Western clawed frog

Question 11

1.  If a new species of honeycreeper were discovered, and it had a short, straight beak, which bird in this puzzle would likely be its closest living relative?

Kaua’i ‘amakihi“““

Question 12

1.  Which ape virus is most closely related to the HIV virus that has killed about 39 million people due to AIDS

Gorrilla SIV
Chimp SIV EK505
Chimp SIV MB897
Chimp SIV TAN1

Question 13

1.  Is a banana more closely related to a lemon or an onion?


Question 14

1.  Which antivenom will save Tyler?

Antivenom A
Antivenom B
Antivenom C
Antivenom D

Question 15

1.  What is one possible evolutionary inference scientist can make using the DNA from a tree in South American that is genetically similar to one in Australia?

Both species share an ancestor that lived when the world had supercontinents.
Just a coincidence.
The trees are adapted to seawater and floated between continents.
No inferences can be made.

Take Test: Video: Is the Earth Overpopulated?

Video Name: OVERPOPULATED – BBC Documentary

Question 1
 In 1963, what specifically made the biggest difference in population size and number of offspring a woman had?
Question 2
Describe how the people making $1 per day view the people above them?
Question 3
According to Dr. Hans Rosling, what will be the “pin code” of the Earth’s population distribution in 2050?
Question 4
What was the average number of babies that women in Bangladesh had in 1970 and how long was the child predicted to live?

7, 50
2, 70
4, 60
5, 50

Question 5
How has life in Mozambique improved for the people there, describe some examples?
Question 6
Describe two practices from the video that have helped save the lives of children (increase their lifespan) in Bangladesh?
Question 7
How many people are predicted to be on Earth before the growth rate starts to flatten out?

9 billion
10 billion
11 billion
12 billion

Question 8
According to Dr. Hans Rosling in the video, how many billion people in the world make $10 a day or less?
Question 9
What has helped to decrease the number of children born per woman globally?
Question 10
In the year 2100, which countries of the world will have the smallest population? The largest?



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