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What is a major determinant of the resting membrane potential necessary for transmission of nerve impulses? The ratio between intracellular K+ and extracellular Na+

. hypokalemia. hyperkalemia. hypocalcemia. Question 3 2 / 2 pts Physiologic pH is maintained around 7.4 because bicarbonate (HCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) exist in a ratio of 1:20. 10:2. 10:5. 20:1. Question 4 2 / 2 pts Water movement between the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular compartment is primarily a function of osmotic forces. antidiuretic hormone. hydrostatic forces. plasma oncotic pressure. Question 5 2 / 2 pts Which are indications of dehydration? Tachycardia and weight loss Muscle weakness and decreased deep tendon reflexes Polyuria and hyperventilation Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit Question 6 2 / 2 pts At the arterial end of capillaries, fluid moves from the intravascular space into the interstitial space because the capillary oncotic pressure is lower than the interstitial hydrostatic pressure. capillary hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary oncotic pressure. interstitial hydrostatic pressure is higher than the capillary hydrostatic pressure. interstitial oncotic pressure is higher than the interstitial hydrostatic pressure. Question 7 2 / 2 pts In hyperkalemia, cardiac rhythm changes are a direct result of cardiac cell repolarization. depression of the sinoatrial (SA) node. cardiac cell hypopolarization. cardiac cell hyperexcitability. Question 8 2 / 2 pts Clinical manifestations that include unexplained weight loss, dyspnea on exertion, use of accessory muscles, and tachypnea with prolonged expiration are indicative of chronic bronchitis. pneumonia. asthma. emphysema. Question 9 2 / 2 pts In ARDS, alveoli and respiratory bronchioles fill with fluid as a result of the compression on the pores of Kohn, thus preventing collateral ventilation. inactivation of surfactant and the impairment of type II alveolar cells. increased capillary hydrostatic pressure that forces fluid into the alveoli and respiratory bronchioles. increased capillary permeability, which causes alveoli and respiratory bronchioles to fill with fluid. Question 10 2 / 2 pts Pulmonary edema usually begins at a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or left atrial pressure of _____ mm Hg. 20 40 30 10 Question 11 2 / 2 pts The most successful treatment for chronic asthma begins with drugs that reduce bronchospasm. broad-spectrum antibiotics. elimination of the causative agent. drugs that decrease airway inflammation. Question 12 2 / 2 pts High altitudes may produce hypoxemia through decreased inspired oxygen. diffusion abnormalities. hypoventilation. shunting. Question 13 2 / 2 pts Which pleural abnormality involves a site of pleural rupture that act as a one-way valve, permitting air to enter on inspiration but preventing its escape by closing during expiration? Open pneumothorax Secondary pneumothorax Tension pneumothorax Spontaneous pneumothorax Question 14 2 / 2 pts Clinical manifestations of pulmonary hypertension include dyspnea on exertion and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. productive cough and rhonchi bilaterally. peripheral edema and jugular venous distention. systemic blood pressure greater than 130/90. Question 15 2 / 2 pts In tuberculosis, the body walls off the bacilli in a tubercle by stimulating which action? macrophages that release TNF-alpha (TNF-α) apoptotic infected macrophages that activate cytotoxic T cells. phagocytosis by neutrophils and eosinophils. formation of immunoglobulin G to initiate the complement cascade. Question 16 2 / 2 pts A(n) _____ is a circumscribed area of suppuration and destruction of lung parenchyma. empyema cavitation consolidation abscess Question 17 2 / 2 pts _____ is a fulminant form of respiratory failure characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffuse alveolocapillary injury. Pneumonia Acute pulmonary edema Pulmonary emboli Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Question 18 0 / 2 pts Dyspnea is not a result of fatigue of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm. decreased pH, increased PaCO2, and decreased PaO2. stimulation of stretch or J-receptors. decreased blood flow to the medulla oblongata. Question 19 2 / 2 pts The release of fibroblast growth factors affects ARDS by causing disruption of alveolocapillary membrane. pulmonary fibrosis. pulmonary hypertension. atelectasis and decreased lung compliance. Question 20 2 / 2 pts Which of the following types of croup is most common? Autoimmune Bacterial Fungal Viral Question 21 2 / 2 pts Chest wall compliance in infants is _____ in adults. unlike that lower than higher than the same as Question 22 2 / 2 pts What is the primary cause of RDS of the newborn? Anemia An immature immune system Small alveoli A surfactant deficiency Question 23 0 / 2 pts Which of the following statements about the advances in the treatment of RDS of the newborn is incorrect? Treatment includes the instillation of exogenous surfactant down an endotracheal tube of infants weighing less than 1,000 g. Administering glucocorticoids to women in preterm labor accelerates the maturation of the fetus’s lungs. Supporting the infant’s respiratory function by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). An infant’s respiratory function is supported by using continuous pressure (CPAP). Administering oxygen to mothers during preterm labor increases their arterial oxygen before birth of the fetus. Administration of oxygen to the mother is not a valid treatment of RDS. Question 24 2 / 2 pts Which immunoglobulin is present in childhood asthma? IgG IgA IgE IgM Included in the long list of asthma-associated genes are those that code for increased levels of immune and inflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-4, IgE, and leukotrienes), nitric oxide, and transmembrane proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Question 25 2 / 2 pts Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a(n) autosomal dominant inheritance. autosomal recessive inheritance. infection. malignancy.]]>


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